Digital Citizenship by Rethabile Michelle Mokhobo

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1. Digital Divide

Please see below the PowerPoint presentation to raise awareness on the ramifications of



1.1 Techno-Economic paradigm

Techno-economic paradigm are at the core of general, innovation-based theory of economic and societal development as conceived by Chris Freeman and Carlota Perez.
During the 1900’s we first lived thorough shift from the agricultural era to the industrial era. Nowadays, we are in the middle of the shift from the industrial era to the information era. The new era has several definitions based on different theories. At the same time, we talk about information society of which (knowledge is forming the main productivity factor), network society (new communication technology is connecting people), post-industrial society (change in production paradigm), service society (emphasis on services instead of production), expert society (increasing importance of skilled people and experts), learning society (learning ability becomes a critical factor), postmodern society (modernization leads to individualism), innovation society (innovation is the driving force of economic growth), risk society (risks and uncertainty are increasing in society) and consumer society (consumer needs steer economic activities) These definitions reflect the different points of view of assessing the development we have been experiencing during the recent years. Each of these definitions emphasizes different phenomena embedded in the change of present techno-economic paradigm, and each of them builds a basis for the assessment of the requirements of the changing environment. Although the definitions and theories describing the present change are mostly very abstract, some concrete indicators can be determined to describe the phase of the trajectory in the changing process of the society. The changes in the society should be assessed at regional level, especially as regional dimension is gaining importance in the development policies at the European level. In the regional context the question to rise first is, how the shift of techno-economic paradigm appears in the regional level and what its effect is on emerging regional disparities. Secondly, is it possible to evaluate, how the region’s adaptability to the shift of techno-economic paradigm correlates to its economical success. In the current study, an indicator is created to describe a regions adaptability to the shift of techno-economic paradigm. The variables included in the adaptability indicator are derived from the theories describing the present society. The Finnish urban regions are used as the source of empirical data in this study. All Finnish urban regions are assessed based on the adaptability indicator and further on, the values of the adaptability indicator are compared to the respective values of indicators describing the economic success of the same regions.. Admittedly, the adaptability indicator does not describe the studied phenomenon completely, it might even be considered provocative. However, it gives some interesting results about the different kinds of development trajectories of urban regions, and gives valuable information for regional decision-making

1.2 Elements of Digital Citizenship  poster aimed at primary children

Digital citizenship by Rethabile Michelle Mokhobo byrmokhobo has created a poster on and shared it with you.

2.Digital Literacy and information fluency on archaeological findings Homo Naledi

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This is the story of one of the greatest fossil discoveries of the past half century, and of what it might mean for our understanding of human evolution.A trove of bones hidden deep within a South African cave represents a new species of human ancestor, scientists announced Thursday in the journal eLife. Homo Naledi, as they call it, appears very primitive in some respects—it had a tiny brain, for instance, and apelike shoulders for climbing. But in other ways it looks remarkably like modern humans. When did it live? Where does it fit in the human family tree? And how did its bones get into the deepest hidden chamber of the cave—could such a primitive creature have been disposing of its dead intentionally?

Well ,two years ago, a pair of recreational cavers entered a cave called Rising Star, some 30 miles northwest of Johannesburg. Rising Star has been a popular draw for cavers since the 1960s, and its filigree of channels and caverns is well mapped. Steven Tucker and Rick Hunter were hoping to find some less trodden passage. Deep in the cave, Tucker and Hunter worked their way through a constriction calledSuperman’s Crawl—because most people can fit through only by holding one arm tightly against the body and extending the other above the head, like the Man of Steel in flight. Crossing a large chamber, they climbed a jagged wall of rock called the Dragon’s Back. At the top they found themselves in a pretty little cavity decorated with stalactites. Hunter got out his video camera, and to remove himself from the frame, Tucker eased himself into a fissure in the cave floor. His foot found a finger of rock, then another below it, then—empty space. Dropping down, he found himself in a narrow, vertical chute, in some places less than eight inches wide. He called to Hunter to follow him. Both men have hyper-slender frames, all bone and wiry muscle. Had their torsos been just a little bigger, they would not have fit in the chute, and what is arguably the most astonishing human fossil discovery in half a century—and undoubtedly the most perplexing—would not have occurred.

In the back of their minds was another mission. In the first half of the 20th century, this region of South Africa produced so many fossils of our early ancestors that it later became known as the Cradle of Humankind. Though the heyday of fossil hunting there was long past, the cavers knew that a scientist in Johannesburg was looking for bones. The odds of happening upon something were remote. But you never know.Having exhausted all other explanations, Berger and his team were stuck with the improbable conclusion that bodies of H. Naledi  were deliberately put there, by other H. Naledi Until now only Homo sapiens, and possibly some archaic humans such as the Neanderthals, are known to have treated their dead in such a ritualized manner. The researchers don’t argue that these much more primitive hominids navigated Superman’s Crawl and the harrowing shark-mouth chute while dragging corpses behind them—that would go beyond improbable to incredible.

Deliberate disposal of bodies would still have required the hominids to find their way to the top of the chute through pitch-black darkness and back again, which almost surely would have required light—torches, or fires lit at intervals. The notion of such a small-brained creature exhibiting such complex behavior seems so unlikely that many other researchers have simply refused to credit it. At some earlier time, they argue, there must have been an entrance to the cave that afforded more direct access to the fossil chamber—one that probably allowed the bones to wash in. Disposal of the dead brings closure for the living, confers respect on the departed, or abets their transition to the next life. Such sentiments are a hallmark of humanity. But H. Naledi, was NOT human—which makes the behavior all the more intriguing.A New Kind of Ancestor H. Naledi was much closer in appearance to Homo species such as H. erect-us than to Australopithecus, such as Lucy. But it possesses enough traits shared with no other member of our genus that it warrants a new species name.


3.Digital Communication and fluencies –

The  Social Economy

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Social technology is defined as applying the used technologies for specific purposes especially social ones: to ease social procedures via social software and social hardware, which might include the use of computers and information technology for governmental procedures,etc.

Benefits for social technologies in corporateThe  social networking can may allow organisations to improve communication which includes the following:

  1. it targets a wide range of audiences making it a useful and effective recruitment tool
  2. improves business reputation and client base with a minimum use of advertising
  3. it also expands market research , implements marketing campaigns

Risk for social technologies in corporate

  1. social technology opens up the possibility for hackers to commit fraud and launch results in lost productivity especially if employees are busy updating profile sit potentially resulting in data or identity theft.

Benefits for  social technologies in society –

  1. social media has a lot of benefits for the society especially for teachers and student it is very easy to educate from others who are experts and professionals via social media as they share knowledge.

Risks for social technologies in society

  1. cyber-bullying  is the most common activity find and children have become victims of the cyber-bullying
  2. personal data and privacy can be easily cracked and shared on internet this is why it is of most importance to have privacy settings

Benefits for social technologies for individuals-

  1. knowledge is enhance due to professionals who post information that usually helps an individual to know more about lifestyle , education and more

Risks for social technologies for individuals –

  1. one may be addicted in social media and it may also affect their way of living and health as most people then end up not interacting with other verbally because one could be

4.Digital Etiquette

Digital Code of Conduct for education institutes

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  •  Remember the Human  Never forget that the person reading your communication is actually a person with feelings and can get hurt. Essentially never say anything online that wouldn’t say to your reader’s face.
  •  Adhere to the same standards of behavior online that you follow in real lifeBe ethical in your engagement and know that breaking the law is bad netiquette 
  • Know where you are in cyberspace – The netiquette required will differ from domain to domain. If you are in a forum of experts, your netiquette should reflect respect. Whereas if you are in a chat room with a group of friends (you know in real life) then the netiquette will differ
  • Respect other people’s time and bandwidth When sharing files or documents, bear in mind the audience’s bandwidth. Furthermore, make sure you read the FAQs first before asking mundane questions where the answers already exist. If you disagree with a group’s discussion, don’t waste their (or your) time by telling them how stupid they are: Just stay away
  • Make yourself look good online – Check grammar and spelling before you post. Most people judge others’ intelligence based on the use of grammar and spelling. Only post on things you know about, it is not worth it to look like the fool.
  • Share expert knowledge Offer answers and help others where you can
  • Help keep flame wars under control Don’t respond to flame-bait, don’t post spelling or grammar flames, and apologize if you have done so or perpetuated a flame-war
  • Respect other people’s privacy – Don’t give out other people’s details, online or offline
  • Don’t abuse your power The more power you have, the more important it is how you use it
  • Be forgiving of other people’s mistakes – We were all once beginners and should accept that everyone has to start somewhere .

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Penalties that apply for failing to meet these rules

  • If these rules are not followed the first step would be to send the user an automatic email stating that they are breaking these rules.
  • The next step would be to limit their time access to the internet.
    If the rules are still continued to be disobeyed they would then need to attend a disciplinary hearing.
    4If the previous step has not corrected their actions then the final step would be to take legal action against the user

5.Digital Rights and Responsibilities  

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6.Digital Law

My Interactive Image by Rethabile

See it now at:

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7.Digital Security 

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The 5 Top cyber-security risks in 2015 are:

  1. Ransomware,
  2. The Internet of Things
  3. Cyber-espionage
  4. Increase in cyber theft and
  5. Insecure passwords

How users, enabled hackers to obtain these details more easily by providing known companies with our data?

It is of most importance to protect  yourself against online fraud as online fraud takes on many guises that can impact everyone, including small businesses and their employees. It is helpful to maintain consistent and predictable online messaging when communicating with your customers to prevent others from impersonating your company. Be sure to never request personal information or account details through email, social networking or other online messages. Let your customers know you will never request this kind of information through such channels and instruct them to contact you directly should they have any concerns,businesses face this threat from two directions –

How they can be avoided or mitigated?

Test web-facing servers often and thoroughly. How often is often? Hackers have probably discovered 10 new ways to exploit your server as you read this sentence. Initiate automated scans and manually scan your web servers at least monthly. Use multi-layered scanning – don’t use the same scan utility over and over. Scan from inside and outside your network. You never know where a hacker may be sitting.

Reference –

8.Digital Health and Well being 

RAPE _ Cold hard facts by Rethabile Michelle Mokhobo

Question 2.2

Solution influency

Discover  – The crime of rape in South Africa is defined by Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007. It falls under the broad category of sexual offences, which includes sexual assault, incest, bestiality and flashing, among other crimes.South Africa’s legal definition of rape is very broad. The act states that “any person (‘A’) who unlawfully and intentionally commits an act of sexual penetration with a complainant (‘B’), without the consent of B, is guilty of the offence of rape”. This includes the oral, anal or vaginal penetration of a person with a genital organ, anal or vaginal penetration with any object and the penetration of a person’s mouth with the genital organs of an animal.Because of this change, rape statistics from before 2008/2009 should not be directly compared to statistics released.

Define – Rape is when a man or women forced themself through sexual interaction

Dream- To stop sale withinSouth Africa we should show that impact and cuased it does for instance as one person forced themself sexually some people don’t use protection thus of which could result contacting HIV/AIDS unplanned pregnancies and making the person who is raped loose the self esteem .

Design- One way to stop rape is that if one committs the crime that should be sentenced without bail changing the law system could make people stop such

Deliver- Having community programs to address rape and it causes and  through media people will listen

Debrief – visit victims to get insight and the calprits that committed the crime as to why that did it